The UK General Election in 2005 according to the Danish Electoral System

This page shows how the UK General Election in 2005 would have been counted according to Danish electoral law (link in Danish).


When British people discuss an alternative to FPTP, they often take for granted that the only options are AV (as in Australia), STV (as in Ireland), or perhaps AMS (as in Scotland and Germany).

However, a different system is used in Denmark (and similar systems are used in Norway and Sweden), and they are taken for granted there.

It is basically Sainte-Laguë with top-up seats.

However, instead of explaining the maths behind the system, I have here tried to show what the results of the General Election in 2005 would have been if this system had been used instead.

Set up

The current constituencies would be kept, but they would change status to being nomination constituencies (“opstillingskredse” in Danish), which means that the constituency associations would be able to put up candidates for election, just as they do now.

However, electing members of parliament would happen in larger units, electoral constituencies (“valgkredse” in Danish), that will typically consist of around 10 nomination constituencies.

Each electoral constituency will elect as many members of parliament as the number of nomination constituencies within it, so the number of MPs will be the same as before.

Each electoral constituency consists of a large number of constituency seats (Danish “kredsmandater”) and a small number of top-up seats (Danish “tillægsmandater”). The constituency seats are allocated locally, without any reference to events outside the electoral constituency, whereas the top-up ones are allocated nationally and regionally.

Step 1: The election

Each voter will be given a ballot paper listing all candidates in the entire election constituency, but with the one from their own nomination constituency listed before the other candidates.

As an example, here is the ballot paper for Argyll & Bute. The local candidates here are McGrigor, Reid, Manson, Strong and Henderson:

Ballot Paper for Nomination Constituency Argyll & Bute

Electoral Constituency: Argyll, Bute & Highland
Electoral Region: West Scotland

Mark exactly one box (☐) like this: ☒

You can choose to vote for either a party or a candidate.

Cons ☐

J.A.R.N. McGrigor ☐
J.B.P. Hodgson ☐
P.A. Ross ☐
R.I. Rowantree ☐

Grn ☐

D. Jardine ☐
D. MacLeod ☐

LibDem ☐

A. Reid ☐
D.G. Alexander ☐
C.P. Kennedy ☐
J.A. Thurso ☐

Labour ☐

C. Manson ☐
C.M. Conniff ☐
A.W. Jamieson ☐
D.J. Stewart ☐

PubP ☐

D.S. Lawson ☐


I.C. Strong ☐
K.A. Shirron ☐
D.G. Thompson ☐
M.E. Will ☐


D. Henderson ☐
L. Ivory ☐
G. MacDonald ☐
A.E. Macleod ☐


P.A. Anderson ☐

Ind (J.G.P. Campbell) ☐

Ind (M. Grant) ☐

Each voter has to tick exactly one box. If they vote for a candidate, it is a vote both for the party that this candidate represents and for the actual candidate. If they vote for a party, it is a vote for the party only.

(For the purpose of producing this, I have assumed all voters voted for the candidate they voted for at the FPTP election. In reality, given the greater choice of candidates, and given the option of voting for just the party, of course the results from an actual election under this system would have been different.)

All the ballot papers can be found here.

Step 2: Allocating constituency seats

Once counting starts, the first thing to do is to allocate the constituency seats. Please see the local results (there are links in the ballot papers) for this, but here is an example:

Ayrshire & Lanark

511545 voters: 7 seats, of which 6 constituency seats. Turnout was 61%.

ConsGrnLibDemLabourOCVSLSNPSSCPSSPUKIPInd (D. McFarlane)Ind (J. Houston)Ind (R. Gentle)
147038 (5)157549402 (3)148121 (1)415116653422 (2)592495323174161601513
3156795251646749373 (4)13838817807197165177213853504
59407315988029624 (6)83233106841189904638332302

What this shows is first of all that there are seven nomination constituencies in Ayrshire & Lanark, and there are six constituency seats (and therefore one top-up seat).

The table lists all parties that put up candidates in this electoral constituency (note that independents are listed as if they were parties in their own right). The first line (marked with 1) shows the actual number of votes received for each party. That is, the Conservatives got 47,038 votes, the Green Party got 1,575 votes, etc.

The next line shows the number of votes divided by 3, and the last one the number of votes divided by 5. For larger constituencies, one would produce more rows, dividing the number of votes by 7, 9, 11 and so forth.

Once the table has been produced, one looks for the largest number in it. In this case, it's the 148,121 votes cast for Labour. This means that the first constituency seats goes to this party, and this is marked in the table by highlighting the number in bold and putting “(1)” after the number.

Now one has to find the second-largest figure, which is 53,422, and the second seat therefore goes to the SNP. Similarly, the third seat is allocated to the Liberal Democrats.

When we get to allocating the fourth seat, Labour's number of votes divided by 3 (49,373) is larger than the number of votes that the Tories got (47,038), and the fourth seat thus goes to Labour.

The Conservatives then get the fifth seat, and finally, Labour get the last constituency seat here.

Step 3: Allocating top-up seats

After allocating constituency seats in all electoral constituencies in the country, the next step is to allocate the top-up seats.

To do this, all the votes cast for all parties in the entire country are added up.

Then one excludes small parties. These are the ones that didn't either receive at least one constituency seat or get at least 2% of the votes. For instance, UKIP got only one constituency seat, but even if hadn't got any, they would still have received top-up seats because they got more than 2% of the votes. Similarly, Respect did not get even close to 2% of the votes, but they managed to get one constituency seat, so they will get a top-up seat, too.

Quite a few small parties, such as the Green Party and the BNP, have not managed to get elected because of these restrictions. However, the Green Party did not put up candidates everywhere, but if they did, I would consider it likely they would be able to get at least 2% of the votes cast, even if the still couldn't get a single constituency seat. It is more unlikely that the BNP would manage to get in, given that their appeal seems to be concentrated in certain areas, so getting 2% nationally would be quite difficult for them, and getting one constituency seat would require even more support in their hotspots.

To allocate the top-up seats, one calculates the share of the vote and then tops up with top-up seats to make the share of seats the same.

That is, if a party got 10% of the votes, it should get 10% of the seats in parliament, i.e., 65 seats, so if it only got 50 constituency seats, it will get a top-up of 15 seats.

(The actual calculations are slightly more complex than this, but this is the principle. The figures below have been done according to the actual rules.)

To get as many seats as possible, parties can enter into an electoral pact (Danish “valgforbund”) with other like-minded parties. I have here assumed that such pacts would exist between Labour and the SDLP, between the Conservatives and the Ulster Unionists, between the LibDems and the APNI, and between the SNP and Plaid Cymru.

Here are the country-wide results, listing the number of votes, constituency seats, top-up seats and total seats:

PartyVotesConstituency seatsTop-Up seatsTotal seats

Step 4: Allocating top-up seats nationally

Now the top-up seats need to be placed in the most appropriate places. For this purpose, the electoral constituencies are grouped into regions.

The calculations are similar to the ones for allocating seats in the electoral constituencies, except that the whole country is being looked at.

In the following table, the constituency seats already allocated above are marked with an X, and each party's votes in each region have been divided by 1, 3, 5, etc.

To allocate the first top-up seat, the largest number in the entire table is found (computers are much better at this than humans), in this case it's the 53,367 votes that UKIP got in East Anglia. The second-largest number is the 52,982 votes that UKIP got in region South, so the next top-up seat is allocated here.

The procedure is repeated many times. Once a region has got all the top-up seats it is entitled to, it can get no more, even if the largest number left in the table is in this region. This is why top-up seat number 53 is given to the LibDems in region South (24,005) instead of the Conservatives in East Anglia (24,011).

The same applies to parties, so seat 110 goes to Labour in Greater Manchester (19,364) instead of Northern Ireland's Sinn Féin (19,392) that has already got the one top-up seat it is entitled to.

This procedure is repeated until all 130 top-up seats have been allocated. The last top-up seat is won by Respect in Wales with only 643 votes.

East AngliaConsXXXXXXXXXXX30274 (13)27852 (18)25789 (29)2401122462211001989418819
LibDemXXXXXXX24595 (42)217011941717567160401475713663127211190011179105409970
LabourXXXXXXXXXX25182 (34)2299321153195861823517059160251510914292
UKIP53367 (1)17789106737623592948514105355731392808254123202134197618401721161715241442
East MidlandsConsXXXXXXXXXX27095 (21)24739 (41)22760 (65)210741962118355172421625715378
LabourXXXXXXXXXXXX26823 (22)24836 (39)23123 (62)21631203201915918123
UKIP34788 (7)11596695749693865316226762319204618301656151213911288119911221054993940
East ScotlandConsXXX30377 (12)23627 (59)19331 (111)163571417612508111911012592458505787573326859644360755747
LabourXXXXXXX27772 (19)24504 (44)21925 (77)19837 (104)1811216663154281436413438126231190211258
EssexConsXXXXXXXXXXXXXX25720 (30)24061 (49)22603 (66)2131120159
LibDemXXXXXX25269 (32)219001932317289156431428213140121661132710596995493858878
LabourXXXXXXXXX24510 (43)221762024718627172481605815022141121330512586
UKIP49798 (4)1659999597114553345273830331929292620237121651991184417171606150914221345
Greater ManchesterConsXXXXXX18704 (118)16210143031279811579105729726900683847843736869476571
LibDemXXXXX21762 (81)18414 (121)15959140811259911399104089575886682547722725468396469
LabourXXXXXXXXXXX21048 (88)19364 (110)179291669315616146691383113083
UKIP24232 (46)80774846346126922202186416151425127511531053969897835781734692654
HumbersideConsXXXXXXXX21763 (80)19472 (108)17618160861479913703127581193511211105719999
LibDemXXXXXX18958 (115)16430144971297111735107159858912784987950746870416660
LabourXXXXXXXXXXXX21027 (89)19470 (109)1812716957159301501914208
UKIP39417 (6)1313978835631437935833032262723182074187717131576145913591271119411261065
LancashireConsXXXXXXXX19764 (106)176831599914608134391244411585108381018195999080
LibDemXXXXX21621 (83)1829415855139901251711325103409513880882017672720767956427
LabourXXXXXXXXXXXX22763 (64)21077 (86)19623 (107)18357172441625915380
UKIP21112 (85)7037422230162345191916241407124111111005917844781728681639603570
NorthConsXXXXXXXX17985 (123)1609214559132931223011324105439863926587358263
LibDemXXXXXX24057 (50)20849 (91)18396 (122)16460148921359712509115831078410088947789358452
LabourXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX21424 (84)20126 (102)18976 (114)17950
North LondonConsXXXXXXXXX22340 (69)20213 (100)18455 (120)16978157211463713692128621212711472
LibDemXXXXXX19793 (105)171541513613542122531118710292953088728300779773516954
LabourXXXXXXXXXXXXX21639 (82)20147 (101)18847 (117)177051669315791
UKIP17746 (125)59153549253519711613136511831043934845771709657611572537507479
Northern IrelandUUXXX18590 (119)144591183010010867576546849619656575205481944874197394337183517
DUPXXXXX21986 (75)1860416123142261272911516105159674895783397801732869106536
SDLPXX25125 (35)1794613958114209663837573896611598254625025465243314052380635893395
SFXXX24932 (38)19392158661342511635102669185831075886981646460185630528849864717
SevernConsXXXXXXXXXXXX23831 (56)22066 (72)20544 (93)19219180541702216102
LibDemXXXXXX23228 (61)20131177621589214379131281207811183104129740915086278161
LabourXXXXXXXXXXX23834 (55)21927 (76)203031890317683166121566214816
UKIP45689 (5)1522991376527507641533514304526872404217519861827169215751473138413051234
SouthConsXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX25699 (31)24142 (48)2276221532
LibDemXXXXXXXXX26531 (23)24005 (53)2191720164186701738216261152751440313624
LabourXXXXX33792 (8)28593 (15)24781 (40)2186519564177001616114868137671281711990112641062010046
UKIP52982 (2)17660105967568588648164075353231162788252223032119196218261709160515131431
South EastConsXXXXXXXXXXX28192 (17)25937 (26)24016 (51)22359 (68)20917196491852617525
LibDemXXXXXXX21853 (79)1928217252156091425213112121401130310574993393658859
LabourXXXXXXXX23826 (57)21318192871761016201150011396713065122741157210947
UKIP50919 (3)16973101837274565746293916339429952679242422132036188517551642154314541376
South LondonConsXXXXXXXXXX24166 (47)22064 (73)20299 (97)187961749916370153781449913716
LibDemXXXXXXXX22415 (67)20055181451656715242141131313912292115471088710298
LabourXXXXXXXXXXX24013 (52)22092 (71)20456 (95)1904517816167361578014927
UKIP25210 (33)840350423601280122911939168014821326120010961008933869813763720681
South WestConsXXXXXXXX31925 (11)28565 (16)25844 (28)2359721709201011871517507164461550614668
LibDemXXXXXXXXX27598 (20)24970 (37)2279820974194211808116915158901498214172
LabourXXXXX23784 (58)20125174411538913769124581137510465968990218439792874757070
WalesConsXXXXXXXX17519 (126)15675 (129)14182129491191311030102709607902585098049
LibDemXXXXXXX16055 (128)141661267511468104709633891983047768729768806508
LabourXXXXXXXXXXXXXX20511 (94)19187 (113)180241699416076
Resp643 (130)21412891715849423733302725232220191817
PCXXX24444 (45)19012155551316211407100659005814874396844633759005519518548884624
UKIP20297 (98)676540592899225518451561135311931068966882811751699654615579548
WestConsXXXXXXXXX28599 (14)25875 (27)2362521735201251873717528164661552514686
LibDemXXXXXXX26297 (24)2320320761187841715015778146091360212724119531127010661
LabourXXXXXXX26118 (25)2304620620186561703415671145101350912638118721119310588
UKIP32234 (10)1074464464604358129302479214818961696153414011289119311111039976920871
West MidlandsConsXXXXXXXX18870 (116)16884152761394712832118811106210348972191658670
LibDemXXXX21877 (78)17899 (124)15145131261158210362937585607875729267896351596656255321
LabourXXXXXXXXXXX21012 (90)19331 (112)178991666415589146441380713061
UKIP33028 (9)11009660547183669300225402201194217381572143613211223113810651000943892
West ScotlandConsXXXX17415 (127)14249120571044992208249746368146269580554045056474944784236
LibDemXXXX20611 (92)168641426912367109129763883380657420687063965984562153005013
LabourXXXXXXXXXXX21992 (74)20232 (99)187341744216316153271445213670
SNPXXX23519 (60)1829314967126641097596848665783971586585609756775310498947034449
YorkshireConsXXXXXXXXX22121 (70)20014 (103)1827316811155661449313558127361200811359
LibDemXXXXX23993 (54)20301 (96)175941552413890125671147410556977491008513799775407133
LabourXXXXXXXXXX25077 (36)22896 (63)21065 (87)195041815916987159581504614233

Step 5: Allocating top-up seats within the regions

Now that the top-up seats have been allocated to the regions, within each of these they need to be allocated to the electoral constituencies within it.

This is done in exactly the same way, except that the votes are divided by 1, 4, 7, etc. instead of 1, 3, 5, etc.

Here are the calculations for West Scotland as an example. (To see the results from the other regions, please click on the links in the big table above.)

The first top-up seat goes to the LibDems in Dumfries, Galloway & Borders, the second one to the SNP in Glasgow suburbs, and so on.

Ayrshire & LanarkConsX117596719470336182939
LabourXXX14812 (4)113939257
Dumfries, Galloway & BordersConsX118086747472336332952
LibDem32298 (1)80744614322924842018
GlasgowConsX4054 (5)2316162112471013
Glasgow suburbsConsX122987027491937843074
LabourXXXX15436 (3)12542
SNPX15475 (2)8842619047613868

Step 6: Determining MPs

Now that we have established exactly how many seats each party gets in each electoral constituency, we need to determine which of the candidates standing that have been elected.

To do this, we simply count the number of votes cast for each candidate, and the candidate with the most votes gets the first seat, the one with the second-most votes gets the next seat, and so on.

As an example, let us look at the Tories in Oxfordshire.

This party got two seats here (both of them constituency seats). The first one goes to David Cameron with 26,571 votes, and the second one to Tony Baldry.

The last four candidates on the list are not elected. However, Boris Johnson becomes the first reserve in case Cameron or Baldry has to step down, and Ed Vaizey second reserve. In this way, by-elections are not needed.

Cons (2)

D.W.D. Cameron MP26571
A.B. Baldry MP26382
A.B. Johnson MP24894
E.H.B. Vaizey MP22354
A.C. McLean16653
V. Morris6992

This completes the election.

Appendix A: MPs elected under FPTP that would also have been elected under the Danish system

G. Adams MP (SF), N.R. Ainger MP (Labour), P.M. Ainsworth MP (Cons), R.W. Ainsworth MP (Labour), D.G. Alexander MP (LibDem), M.A. Ancram MP (Cons), D. Anderson MP (Labour), J.N. Arbuthnot MP (Cons), H.J. Armstrong MP (Labour), C.J.S. Atkins MP (Labour), P.L. Atkinson MP (Cons), J.E. Austin MP (Labour), I.C. Austin MP (Labour), R.M. Bacon MP (Cons), A.E. Bailey MP (Labour), N.J. Baker MP (LibDem), A.B. Baldry MP (Cons), E.M. Balls MP (Labour), G.R. Banks MP (Labour), G.L.G. Barker MP (Cons), C.A. Barlow MP (Labour), J.C. Baron MP (Cons), J.A. Barrett MP (LibDem), K.J. Barron MP (Labour), H. Bayley MP (Labour), A. Begg MP (Labour), A.J. Beith MP (LibDem), H.C. Bellingham MP (Cons), J.E. Benton MP (Labour), R.H.R. Benyon MP (Cons), J.S. Bercow MP (Cons), A.P. Beresford MP (Cons), R.L. Berry MP (Labour), C.J.C. Betts MP (Labour), B.A.R. Binley MP (Cons), E.M. Blackman MP (Labour), A.C.L. Blair MP (Labour), R.J. Blizzard MP (Labour), D.S. Borrow MP (Labour), T.E. Boswell MP (Cons), B.P.J. Bradshaw MP (Labour), G.S. Brady MP (Cons), T.A. Brake MP (LibDem), J.W.H. Brazier MP (Cons), C.E. Breed MP (LibDem), M. Brien MP (Labour), S.R. Brien MP (Cons), J.P. Brokenshire MP (Cons), A.L. Brooke MP (LibDem), R. Brown MP (Labour), G. Brown MP (Labour), D.H. Browne MP (Labour), J.R. Browne MP (LibDem), A. Browning MP (Cons), M.G. Bruce MP (LibDem), C.J. Bryant MP (Labour), K.P. Buck MP (Labour), C. Burgon MP (Labour), A.M. Burnham MP (Labour), S.H.M. Burns MP (Cons), D.J.B. Burrowes MP (Cons), P.K. Burstow MP (LibDem), A.J.H. Burt MP (Cons), L.J. Burt MP (LibDem), D.P. Butler MP (Labour), S.J. Byers MP (Labour), J.V. Cable MP (LibDem), P. Calton MP (LibDem), D.W.D. Cameron MP (Cons), G.L. Campbell MP (DUP), M. Campbell MP (LibDem), R. Campbell MP (Labour), A. Campbell MP (Labour), A. Carmichael MP (LibDem), W.N.P. Cash MP (Cons), I.A. Cawsey MP (Labour), C.R. Challen MP (Labour), D.M. Chaytor MP (Labour), C.R. Chope MP (Cons), M. Clapham MP (Labour), W.J. Clappison MP (Cons), G.D. Clark MP (Cons), P.G. Clark MP (Labour), T. Clarke MP (Labour), K.H. Clarke MP (Cons), N.W.P. Clegg MP (LibDem), G. Clifton-Brown MP (Cons), D.L. Conway MP (Cons), F. Cook MP (Labour), R. Cook MP (Labour), R.E. Cooper MP (Labour), Y. Cooper MP (Labour), C.G. Cox MP (Cons), S. Crabb MP (Cons), C.A. Cryer MP (Labour), J.S. Cummings MP (Labour), J.D. Cunningham MP (Labour), T.A. Cunningham MP (Labour), D.M. Curry MP (Cons), A. Darling MP (Labour), E.J. Davey MP (LibDem), W. David MP (Labour), I. Davidson MP (Labour), D.T.C. Davies MP (Cons), J.Q. Davies MP (Cons), P.A. Davies MP (Cons), D.M. Davis MP (Cons), J.E.A. Dean MP (Labour), J.Y. Denham MP (Labour), P.S. Dhanda MP (Labour), A.H. Dismore MP (Labour), J.S. Djanogly MP (Cons), J. Dobbin MP (Labour), J.M. Donaldson MP (DUP), F. Doran MP (Labour), S.J. Dorrell MP (Cons), N.V. Dorries MP (Cons), D.E. Drew MP (Labour), A.J.C. Duncan MP (Cons), P.M. Dunne MP (Cons), G.P. Dunwoody MP (Labour), J.M. Durkan MP (SDLP), M. Eagle MP (Labour), A. Eagle MP (Labour), N. Engel MP (Labour), J. Ennis MP (Labour), N.M. Evans MP (Cons), M.L.D. Fabricant MP (Cons), M.C. Fallon MP (Cons), T.J. Farron MP (LibDem), L.C. Featherstone MP (LibDem), C.L. Flint MP (Labour), D.B. Follett MP (Labour), E. Forth MP (Cons), D.M.E. Foster MP (LibDem), M.J. Foster MP (Labour), L. Fox MP (Cons), D.H. Francis MP (Labour), M.G. Francois MP (Cons), C.J. Fraser MP (Cons), R.J. Gale MP (Cons), G. Galloway MP (Resp), M.J. Gapes MP (Labour), B.S. Gardiner MP (Labour), E.H. Garnier MP (Cons), D.M. Gauke MP (Cons), A.H. George MP (LibDem), N.F. Gerrard MP (Labour), I. Gibson MP (Labour), S.J. Gidley MP (LibDem), M. Gildernew MP (SF), C.E.K. Gillan MP (Cons), P.G. Goggins MP (Labour), M.A. Gove MP (Cons), J.W. Gray MP (Cons), C.S. Grayling MP (Cons), D.H. Green MP (Cons), N.R. Griffith MP (Labour), J.T. Grogan MP (Labour), J.S. Gummer MP (Cons), A.J. Gwynne MP (Labour), W.J. Hague MP (Cons), P.G. Hain MP (Labour), P. Hall MP (Labour), D. Hamilton MP (Labour), S.W. Hammond MP (Cons), G.W. Hands MP (Cons), D.G. Hanson MP (Labour), E. Hara MP (Labour), H. Harman MP (Labour), T. Harris MP (Labour), E.L. Harris MP (LibDem), N.B. Harvey MP (LibDem), A.G.B. Haselhurst MP (Cons), J.H. Hayes MP (Cons), S.L. Heal MP (Labour), O. Heald MP (Cons), J. Healey MP (Labour), J.A.M. Hemming MP (LibDem), C. Hendry MP (Cons), S. Hepburn MP (Labour), N.Le Q. Herbert MP (Cons), S.E. Hermon MP (UU), P.H. Hewitt MP (Labour), D.A. Heyes MP (Labour), K. Hill MP (Labour), M. Hillier MP (Labour), M.G. Hoban MP (Cons), S. Hodgson MP (Labour), C.L. Hoey MP (Labour), D.M. Hogg MP (Cons), P.T. Hollobone MP (Cons), P.R. Holmes MP (LibDem), G.W. Hoon MP (Labour), K.P. Hopkins MP (Labour), J.R. Horam MP (Cons), M.C. Horwood MP (LibDem), M. Howard MP (Cons), G.E. Howarth MP (Labour), D.R. Howarth MP (LibDem), K.S. Howells MP (Labour), L.H. Hoyle MP (Labour), B.J. Hughes MP (Labour), S.H.W. Hughes MP (LibDem), C.M.P. Huhne MP (LibDem), J.J. Humble MP (Labour), J. Hunt MP (Cons), N.R. Hurd MP (Cons), J.M.P. Hutton MP (Labour), A. Ingram MP (Labour), I.H. Irranca-Davies MP (Labour), J.M. Jack MP (Cons), B.D. Jenkins MP (Labour), K.D. Jones MP (Labour), L.M. Jones MP (Labour), H.M. Jones MP (Labour), D.I. Jones MP (Cons), T.J. Jowell MP (Labour), E. Joyce MP (Labour), B.M. Keeley MP (Labour), A. Keen MP (Labour), P.S. Keetch MP (LibDem), F. Kemp MP (Labour), C.P. Kennedy MP (LibDem), S.R. Key MP (Cons), P.S. Khabra MP (Labour), S.A. Khan MP (Labour), D.N. Kidney MP (Labour), P. Kilfoyle MP (Labour), J. Kirkbride MP (Cons), G. Knight MP (Cons), J. Knight MP (Labour), S.V. Kramer MP (LibDem), A. Kumar MP (Labour), E.F. Laing MP (Cons), J.A.H. Lait MP (Cons), N.P. Lamb MP (LibDem), D. Lammy MP (Labour), D.A. Laws MP (LibDem), J. Leech MP (LibDem), O. Letwin MP (Cons), I. Lewis MP (Labour), D.R. Lidington MP (Cons), P.B. Lilley MP (Cons), M.N. Lord MP (Cons), A.M. Love MP (Labour), P.J. Luff MP (Cons), A.J. MacKay MP (Cons), A.B. MacNeil MP (SNP), A.S. Mackinlay MP (Labour), D.J. Maclean MP (Cons), F.M. Mactaggart MP (Labour), K. Mahmood MP (Labour), J. Mallaber MP (Labour), J. Mann MP (Labour), J.C. Maples MP (Cons), R.H. Marris MP (Labour), G. Marsden MP (Labour), D. Marshall MP (Labour), M.J. Mates MP (Cons), F.A.A. Maude MP (Cons), T.M. May MP (Cons), T. McAvoy MP (Labour), C. McCafferty MP (Labour), S.L. McCarthy-Fry MP (Labour), I. McCartney MP (Labour), S.A. McDonagh MP (Labour), J.M. McDonnell MP (Labour), J. McFall MP (Labour), J. McGovern MP (Labour), E. McGrady MP (SDLP), M. McGuinness MP (SF), A.C.B. McIntosh MP (Cons), S. McIsaac MP (Labour), R. McKenna MP (Labour), P.A. McLoughlin MP (Cons), A.J. McNulty MP (Labour), M.H. Meacher MP (Labour), P.J. Mercer MP (Cons), G. Merron MP (Labour), A. Milburn MP (Labour), A.P. Miller MP (Labour), A.F. Milton MP (Cons), A.J.B. Mitchell MP (Cons), L.J. Moffatt MP (Labour), C.D. Mole MP (Labour), M.K. Moore MP (LibDem), J. Morgan MP (Labour), M.D. Moss MP (Cons), G.T. Mulholland MP (LibDem), M.P. Munn MP (Labour), D. Murphy MP (Labour), P.P. Murphy MP (Labour), J. Murphy MP (Labour), C.T. Murphy MP (SF), J.D. Naysmith MP (Labour), B. Newmark MP (Cons), M. Oaten MP (LibDem), S. Osborne MP (Labour), G.G.O. Osborne MP (Cons), R.G.J. Ottaway MP (Cons), A. Owen MP (Labour), J.E.T. Paice MP (Cons), I.R.K. Paisley MP (DUP), N.D. Palmer MP (Labour), O.W. Paterson MP (Cons), A.J. Pelling MP (Cons), J.D. Penrose MP (Cons), A. Picking MP (Labour), E.J. Pickles MP (Cons), J.A. Plaskitt MP (Labour), S.P. Pound MP (Labour), J.L. Prescott MP (Labour), A. Price MP (PC), D. Primarolo MP (Labour), M.M. Prisk MP (Cons), G.M. Prosser MP (Labour), J.D. Pugh MP (LibDem), W.E. Rammell MP (Labour), A.J. Randall MP (Cons), W.R.N. Raynsford MP (Labour), A.J. Reed MP (Labour), M.L. Rifkind MP (Cons), A.R.G. Robathan MP (Cons), H.M. Robertson MP (Cons), L.A. Robertson MP (Cons), I. Robinson MP (DUP), G. Robinson MP (Labour), A.R. Rosindell MP (Cons), P.J. Rowen MP (LibDem), F. Roy MP (Labour), C.S. Ruane MP (Labour), D.L. Ruffley MP (Cons), R.E. Russell MP (LibDem), J.M. Ryan MP (Labour), A. Salmond MP (SNP), M.J. Salter MP (Labour), A.M. Sanders MP (LibDem), L. Scott MP (Cons), A.J. Seabeck MP (Labour), G.V. Shapps MP (Cons), J.R. Shaw MP (Labour), R.C.S. Shepherd MP (Cons), C. Short MP (Labour), S.L. Simon MP (Labour), D. Simpson MP (DUP), D.E. Skinner MP (Labour), R. Smith MP (LibDem), G. Smith MP (Labour), J. Smith MP (Labour), A.C. Smith MP (Labour), J.J. Smith MP (Labour), A.E. Smith MP (Labour), G.I. Duncan Smith MP (Cons), A.D. Smith MP (Labour), A.N.W. Soames MP (Cons), C.A. Spelman MP (Cons), W.M.H. Spicer MP (Cons), J.P. Stanley MP (Cons), P.M. Starkey MP (Labour), I. Stewart MP (Labour), H.G.A. Stoate MP (Labour), G.N. Streeter MP (Cons), G.E. Stringer MP (Labour), G.G. Stuart MP (Labour), G.C. Stuart MP (Cons), A. Stunell MP (LibDem), G. Sutcliffe MP (Labour), D.A. Swayne MP (Cons), J. Swinson MP (LibDem), H. Swire MP (Cons), M.R. Tami MP (Labour), D.L. Taylor MP (Labour), D. Taylor MP (Labour), S.L. Teather MP (LibDem), G.R. Thomas MP (Labour), S.C. Timms MP (Labour), S.P. Tipping MP (Labour), M.W. Todd MP (Labour), J.D. Touhig MP (Labour), J.H. Trickett MP (Labour), P.A. Truswell MP (Labour), A.J. Turner MP (Cons), J.D. Twigg MP (Labour), A.G. Tyrie MP (Cons), K. Vaz MP (Labour), T.A. Villiers MP (Cons), R.J. Vis MP (Labour), R.B.L. Wallace MP (Cons), R.J. Walter MP (Cons), C.M. Ward MP (Labour), R.N. Wareing MP (Labour), N.C. Waterson MP (Cons), A.E. Watkinson MP (Cons), T.A. Watson MP (Labour), D.L. Watts MP (Labour), S.J. Webb MP (LibDem), A.P.V. Whitehead MP (Labour), J.F.L. Whittingdale MP (Cons), M.H. Wicks MP (Labour), W.D. Wiggin MP (Cons), M.F. Williams MP (LibDem), S.R. Williams MP (LibDem), H. Williams MP (PC), R.H. Williams MP (LibDem), G.P. Willis MP (LibDem), J.N. Willott MP (LibDem), M.D. Wills MP (Labour), S. Wilson MP (DUP), N.R. Winterton MP (Cons), J.A. Winterton MP (Cons), P. Wishart MP (SNP), M. Wood MP (Labour), S.A. Woodward MP (Labour), A.W. Wright MP (Labour), A.D. Wright MP (Labour), J.P. Wright MP (Cons), G.S.K. Young MP (Cons), R. Younger-Ross MP (LibDem).

Appendix B: MPs elected under FPTP that would not have been elected under the Danish system

D.J. Abbott MP (Labour), A. Afriyie MP (Cons), D.G. Alexander MP (Labour), G.W. Allen MP (Labour), D.A.A. Amess MP (Cons), J. Anderson MP (Labour), V. Baird MP (Labour), J.D. Battle MP (Labour), S.R.M. Baynes MP (Cons), M.M. Beckett MP (Labour), S. Bell MP (Labour), H.J. Benn MP (Labour), R.C. Blackman-Woods MP (Labour), H.A. Blears MP (Labour), D. Blunkett MP (Labour), C.J.R. Blunt MP (Cons), P.W. Bone MP (Cons), P.J. Bottomley MP (Cons), E.A. Breeze MP (Labour), K.D. Brennan MP (Labour), N.H. Brown MP (Labour), L.C. Brown MP (Labour), R.H. Burden MP (Labour), J.V. Butterfill MP (Cons), L.D. Byrne MP (Labour), R.G. Caborn MP (Labour), D. Cairns MP (Labour), J.D.W. Carswell MP (Cons), M.P. Caton MP (Labour), J.K. Chapman MP (Labour), K. Clark MP (Labour), C.R. Clarke MP (Labour), D.G. Clelland MP (Labour), A. Clwyd MP (Labour), V.R. Coaker MP (Labour), A. Coffey MP (Labour), H.M. Cohen MP (Labour), M. Connarty MP (Labour), J.B. Corbyn MP (Labour), P.T. Cormack MP (Cons), J.M. Cousins MP (Labour), D.A. Crausby MP (Labour), M.H. Creagh MP (Labour), J. Cruddas MP (Labour), C. Curtis-Thomas MP (Labour), F.G. Dobson MP (Labour), N.A. Dodds MP (DUP), P. Doherty MP (SF), B.H. Donohoe MP (Labour), J.P. Dowd MP (Labour), J.P. Duddridge MP (Cons), C.S. Efford MP (Labour), L.J. Ellman MP (Labour), T.M. Ellwood MP (Cons), W. Etherington MP (Labour), D.A. Evennett MP (Cons), C.P. Farrelly MP (Labour), F. Field MP (Labour), M.C. Field MP (Cons), M. Fisher MP (Labour), J. Fitzpatrick MP (Labour), R.C.D. Flello MP (Labour), P.P. Flynn MP (Labour), B.T. George MP (Labour), N.J. Gibb MP (Cons), L. Gilroy MP (Labour), R.D. Godsiff MP (Labour), J.A. Goldsworthy MP (LibDem), H.C. Goodman MP (Labour), P.A.C. Goodman MP (Cons), R. Goodwill MP (Cons), J. Greening MP (Cons), J.R. Greenway MP (Cons), D.C.R. Grieve MP (Cons), N. Griffiths MP (Labour), M.T. Hall MP (Labour), F. Hamilton MP (Labour), P. Hammond MP (Cons), M.T. Hancock MP (LibDem), M.J. Harper MP (Cons), D.S. Havard MP (Labour), D.W.St.J. Heath MP (LibDem), D.J. Henderson MP (Labour), M.P. Hendrick MP (Labour), J. Heppell MP (Labour), S. Hesford MP (Labour), M.E. Hodge MP (Labour), A.J.H. Holloway MP (Cons), J. Hood MP (Labour), P.I. Hope MP (Labour), S. Hosie MP (SNP), J.G.D. Howarth MP (Cons), B. Iddon MP (Labour), E.E. Illsley MP (Labour), S.J. Jackson MP (Cons), G.M. Jackson MP (Labour), S.C. James MP (Labour), B.C. Jenkin MP (Cons), A.B. Johnson MP (Cons), D.R. Johnson MP (Labour), A.A. Johnson MP (Labour), M.D. Jones MP (Labour), M.B. Jones MP (Labour), G.B. Kaufman MP (Labour), D.R. Kawczynski MP (Cons), S.C. Keeble MP (Labour), A. Keen MP (Labour), R.M. Kelly MP (Labour), J.E. Kennedy MP (Labour), S.J. Ladyman MP (Labour), J.M. Lancaster MP (Cons), A.D. Lansley MP (Cons), R. Laxton MP (Labour), M.J. Lazarowicz MP (Labour), E.J.E. Leigh MP (Cons), D. Lepper MP (Labour), T. Levitt MP (Labour), J.M. Lewis MP (Cons), I.R. Liddell-Grainger MP (Cons), M. Linton MP (Labour), A.J. Lloyd MP (Labour), E. Llwyd MP (PC), T.P. Loughton MP (Cons), I.C. Lucas MP (Labour), J.W. MacDougall MP (Labour), D. MacShane MP (Labour), A.M. Main MP (Cons), S. Malik MP (Labour), H.J. Malins MP (Cons), M.J. Martin MP (Labour), E.A. Martlew MP (Labour), S.J. McCabe MP (Labour), K. McCarthy MP (Labour), R.T.W. McCrea MP (DUP), A. McDonnell MP (SDLP), P.B. McFadden MP (Labour), A. McGuire MP (Labour), A. McKechin MP (Labour), J.A. Meale MP (Labour), A.E. Michael MP (Labour), D.W. Miliband MP (Labour), E.S. Miliband MP (Labour), M.F.L. Miller MP (Cons), A.V. Mitchell MP (Labour), M. Moon MP (Labour), M. Moran MP (Labour), J.E. Morden MP (Labour), E.A. Morley MP (Labour), K.C.J. Mountford MP (Labour), G. Mudie MP (Labour), C.J. Mullin MP (Labour), D.G. Mundell MP (Cons), T.J. Munt MP (LibDem), A.W. Murrison MP (Cons), D. Norris MP (Labour), W.J. Olner MP (Labour), I.P. Pearson MP (Labour), M.A. Penning MP (Cons), G.J. Pope MP (Labour), B.T. Prentice MP (Labour), G. Prentice MP (Labour), M.A. Pritchard MP (Cons), K. Purchase MP (Labour), J.M.D. Purnell MP (Labour), M.J. Reckless MP (Cons), J.A. Redwood MP (Cons), J.R. Reed MP (Labour), A. Reid MP (LibDem), J. Reid MP (Labour), L. Riordan MP (Labour), J. Robertson MP (Labour), A. Robertson MP (SNP), P. Robinson MP (DUP), D.J. Rogerson MP (LibDem), T.H. Rooney MP (Labour), J. Ruddock MP (Labour), C.M. Russell MP (Labour), M. Sarwar MP (Labour), A.E.A. Selous MP (Cons), B.J. Sheerman MP (Labour), J. Sheridan MP (Labour), M.J.M. Simmonds MP (Cons), A.J. Simpson MP (Labour), K.R. Simpson MP (Cons), M. Singh MP (Labour), A.F. Slaughter MP (Labour), A.C. Snelgrove MP (Labour), P.A. Soulsby MP (Labour), H.M. Southworth MP (Labour), J.F. Spellar MP (Labour), R.M. Spink MP (Cons), R.J.G. Spring MP (Cons), R.A. Squire MP (Labour), A.D. Steen MP (Cons), G.S. Strang MP (Labour), J.W. Straw MP (Labour), R.A.R. Syms MP (Cons), P.H.B. Tapsell MP (Cons), M.O.J. Taylor MP (LibDem), I.C. Taylor MP (Cons), E. Thornberry MP (Labour), J.A. Thurso MP (LibDem), D.A.S. Tredinnick MP (Cons), D.S. Turner MP (Labour), N. Turner MP (Labour), K. Ussher MP (Labour), E.H.B. Vaizey MP (Cons), S.L. Vara MP (Cons), P.J. Viggers MP (Cons), C.A.R. Walker MP (Cons), J.L. Walley MP (Labour), L.E. Waltho MP (Labour), M.F. Weir MP (SNP), D.L. Willetts MP (Cons), B.H. Williams MP (Labour), A.J. Williams MP (Labour), D. Wilshire MP (Cons), R. Wilson MP (Cons), D.J. Winnick MP (Labour), R. Winterton MP (Labour), P.J. Woolas MP (Labour), D. Wright MP (Labour), I.D. Wright MP (Labour), D.M. Wyatt MP (Labour), T.S.K. Yeo MP (Cons).